Zimbabwe is a country of 12 million people. 1.4 million people live in the capital city Harare. Zimbabwe's main population is the Shona, who have been in the region for over 1,000 years. The Ndebele, a smaller group, arrived in the 19th century. From 1911-1964 the country was known as the Republic of Zimbabwe, and from 1964-80 it was known as Southern Rhodesia, and then Rhodesia from 1979-1980. Starting in 1965, the country was dominated by the white minority and colonial rule under the Unilateral Declaration of Independence. In 1980 the country achieved black majority rule, and Robert Mugabe became prime minister. Mugabe set out to redistribute the race and class-based inequalities, to redistribute land from the white minority, and promote economic development as a one-party socialist state. The 1980s brought an economic downturn and white flight. In 1998 Mugabe intervened in the Democratic Republic of the Congo's civil war to protect his own investments, and international aid to Zimbabwe was suspended as a result. By 2000, calls to end Mugabe's autocratic rule were present. Mugabe continued his aggressive program of confiscating white farm owners' land in 2002, which in turn left thousands of Black farmworkers homeless and unemployed. The property was not redistributed instead claimed by political allies. Mugabe's policies continue to economically distress the country through the 21st century, with several failed attempts by others to run against him. Each time, Mugabe used intimidation and police violence on opposition candidates and their supporters. In 2009 Tsvangirai joined Mugabe in a new government that altered the constitution and established a prime minister role. The change resulted in economic growth in the years following, though Mugabe was declared the winner of the 2013 elected under results characterized as fraudulent. Following this election, Mugabe's wife Grace began amassing political support for herself. In November 2017, the military seized power and placed Mugabe under house arrest and Grace's supporters. Demonstrations across the country highlighted that Mugabe had little support left, and on November 19th, he was removed from office with Mnangagwa elected in his place. Grace was fired from her position. Mugabe still refused to resign though Mnangagwa was inaugurated as interim president on November 24th, 2017. Elections were held for the first time in 16 years on July 30th, 2018, and after a delay, Mnangagwa was declared the winner.