Ghana is a country of 23 million. Its capital city is Accra, which 1.6 million people call home. Ghana's population is comprised of dozens of ethnic groups, the largest being the Akan. About half of Ghanaians make their living from agriculture, such as maize, yams, and cassava. The major cash crop is cocoa; the country's significant exports are gold, cocoa, and timber. Ghana was first colonized by the Portuguese, who arrived in 1471. Ghana's colonial name was "Gold Coast' and was occupied as a British colony from 1821 - 1957. Colonizers not only exploited Ghana for its gold but used its ports for the slave trade. Ghana achieved independence in 1960. Ghana relied on economic aid starting in 1982, boosting the economy through increased tourism and ecological reserves. In 1979 Jerry Rawlings took power through a coup, doing it again in 1981 after briefly handing power over civilian control. Rawlings embraced the IMF, building programs towards structural adjustment that international donors held up as a "model." In 1992, following pressure from donors concerned with Rawling's dictatorship, the government allowed a multiparty election system. Rawlings won the presidential election in 1996; but lost to John Mills in 2000, allowing for a transfer of power. In 2008 John Mills was re-elected.