This northern country consists of an arid plateau and is one of the hottest places in the world. With a population of 800,000, nearly 88% of whom live in urban spaces. This country has two major ethnic groups, the Somalis and the Afar. Djibouti achieved independence in 1977; they were ruled by the Rassemblement Populaire pour le proges, the only legal party from 1981 - 1992. Djibouti had one president until 1999, Hassan Gouled Aptidon, who was replaced by Ismael Omar Guelleh, who, like his predecessor used military force to quell resistance. He won in 2005, 2011, and 2016.